Solana Güneş Santrali, dünyanın en büyük güneş santrali olarak 2013 yılında hizmete girmeye hazırlanıyor. Tesisin yapımına 2010 yılında başlanmıştır. Tesis, Arizona Gila bend yakınlarında Phoenix’in 70 mil güney batısında yer almaktadır. 280 Megawatt (MW) gücündeki santral silindirik parabolik oluklardan oluşan yansıtıcılar vasıtası ile elektrik üretimi gerçekleştirecektir. Sahip olacağı ısıl depolama kapasitesi ile güneş battıktan sonra 6 saat süre ile enerji üretimine devam edebilecektir. Bu kapasite, özellikle yaz aylarında akşam saatlerinde klimalar sebebi ile artan enerji ihtiyacı için çözüm olacaktır.
Çevresel ve Sosyo-Ekonomik faydaları:
- Solana´nın üreteceği elektrik enerjisi ile 70,000 hanenin elektrik enerjisi ihtiyacı karşılanmış olacaktır. Bir doğal gaz tesisi ile kıyaslandığında ise bu rakam yıllık 475,000 ton CO2 emisyonunun salınımının önlenmesi anlamını taşımaktadır.
- Solana inşaası sırasında 1,600 – 1,700 yeni iş imkanı ve 85 fazla da kalıcı iş imkanı sağlayacaktır.
- Çevresel perspektif ile Solana, Arizona halkına temiz, kirlilikten arınmış ve sera gazı emisyonu içermeyen bir enerji sunacaktır. Fosil yakıt ihtiyacı azalacağı için yıllık 500,000 ton karbon dioksit emisyonu atmosfere salınmamış olacaktır.
Solana Güneş Santrali, Abengoa Solar firmasınca inşaa edilmektedir. Firma hakkında detaylı bilgiyi aşağıda bulabilirsiniz.
Solar Business Group www.abengoasolar.com
1.- Solar Business Group
Abengoa Solar, the Abengoa Solar business unit, focuses its activity on the development and application of technologies to produce energy by employing the sun in order to halt climate change and to ensure sustainable development.
Solar energy has the potential to at least partially meet society’s need for new clean and efficient energy sources. The Solar business group is the product of more than 20 years of investment in and development of solar power projects, employing both solar thermal (parabolic trough and tower) and photovoltaic technology. Abengoa Solar is thus a pioneer in applying these technologies to produce electricity in power grid-connected plants and to generate solar-based industrial steam.
Abengoa Solar focuses its growth on five fundamental activities:
- Plant operation and management.
- Plant construction and engineering, employing proprietary technology and specialized construction companies in all cases.
- Promotion of solar installations and plants, for which the company determines ideal locations, and obtains project financing and the required permits.
- Development of efficient technologies for generating energy with the sun, relying on the company’s own R&D&i teams in Spain and the U.S. and collaborating with leading research centers worldwide.
- Manufacturing and supply of key plant components in certain cases.
Solar thermal (parabolic trough and tower) technologies are generally ideal for large-scale power grid-connected plants in locations with a high level of solar radiation employed for peak production during times of the day and year with the most sunlight or when manageability is needed, achieved through gas or biomass hybridization or by means of thermal storage.
Photovoltaic technologies, on the other hand, are perfect for distributed generation on rooftops, for small grid-connected plants, and for larger plants located in places with an “average” amount of solar radiation.
Abengoa Solar believes that the combined use of these technologies has the power to change the world by progressing towards cleaner and more sustainable electricity generation at a reasonable cost.
Abengoa Solar highlights since 2007
• The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to provide a 2-million-dollar subsidy for Phase 1of three Abengoa Solar R&D projects within the framework of the U.S. government solar thermal energy program.
• Abengoa Solar signs a contract with electric utility Arizona Public Service (APS) to build the world’s largest solar station in Arizona (United States). The plant will boast a power output capacity totaling 280 megawatts, selling around 4 billion dollars worth of clean energy over a thirty-year period.
• Abengoa Solar wins two new contracts, valued at 14.4 million dollars, to execute R&D projects in conjunction with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).
• Following great success during operation and production testing, Abengoa Solar begins operating PS20, the largest solar power tower in the world.
• Abengoa Solar inaugurates Eureka, the first second-generation power tower intended to increase plant performance, thereby lowering generating costs and the area of the solar field.
• Abengoa Solar signs up as a founding partner to the Desertec Industrial Initiative project to produce renewable energies in the desert regions of Northern Africa and the Middle East.
• Abengoa Solar signs a contract with Pacific Gas & Electric (PG&E) to sell the energy produced at a 250-megawatt solar thermal plant to be located in the Mojave Desert in California (United States).
• Abengoa Solar and E.ON Climate & Renewables enter into an alliance to develop and operate two 50-megawatt solar thermal plants in Écija.
• Abengoa Solar enters thirteen solar plants, with a combined power capacity totaling 650 megawatts, into the compensation pre-allocation registry of solar thermal facilities.
• King Juan Carlos and Queen Sofía preside over the inauguration of Abengoa’s PS20 solar plant, the world’s largest commercial power tower.
• Abengoa Solar begins commercial operation of Solnova 1,3 and 4, the first three
50-megawatt parabolic trough plants located at the Solúcar Complex. Each plant produces enough energy to supply electricity to 25,700 households.
- Abengoa Solar enters into a joint venture with Total and Masdar to build and operate in Abu Dhabi what will be, with its 100 megawatts of power, the largest solar plant in the Middle East.
- Abengoa Solar wins a contract with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop a state-of-the-art solar power tower.
- President Obama announces preliminary approval of a 1.45-billion-dollar federal loan guarantee for an Abengoa Solar plant.
2.- The Solúcar Complex
Abengoa Solar is currently building the largest solar platform in Europe. Located just outside of Sanlúcar la Mayor, Seville, this solar thermal and photovoltaic installation complex will have a nominal power output capacity of 300 megawatts: obtained through tower technology, parabolic trough collectors, and photovoltaic technology.
The complex also features a research and development site, where a variety of new technology demonstration plants are under construction. This makes the Solúcar Complex the only place in the world offering installations, either under demonstration or operating commercially, employing virtually all of today’s solar technologies.
The complex is due for completion, and, thanks to its 300 megawatts of power, will supply clean electricity to 153,000 while at the same eliminating the emission of 185,000 tons of CO2 each year to reach a total of 4 million tons over the course of its useful life.
This project, entailing an investment of 1.2 billion euros, takes up an area of over 2,471 acres (1,000 hectares) and will create 1,000 jobs in connection with the manufacturing and construction phase, nearly 300 jobs for plant operation, and another 50 associated with research and development.
PS10: 11-megawatt thermoelectric solar power tower
Start-up of PS10 in June 2007 marked the unveiling, following several years of Abengoa Solar research and investigation, of the world’s first tower technology-based solar plant to produce electricity for commercial use.
PS10 is made up of 624 1,292-square-foot (120-square-meter) heliostats which concentrate solar radiation onto a 377-foot-high (115-meter-high) tower. With its 11 megawatts of power, PS10 can meet the electricity demand of 5,500 households, while preventing the emission of more than 6,700 tons of CO2 into the environment.
This plant also has the capability to store enough energy to run for approximately an hour during periods of lower solar radiation.
PS20: 20-megawatt thermoelectric solar power tower
PS20, the world’s second commercial power tower, has added highly significant Abengoa Solar-developed technological enhancements with respect to PS10: a higher efficiency receiver, various control and operational system enhancements, and improvements to the thermal energy storage system.
With its 20 megawatts of power, PS20 produces enough clean energy to supply electricity to 10,000 households, preventing the emission into the atmosphere of around 12,000 tons of CO2.
PS20, which went into operation in May 2009, is composed of a solar field made up of 1,255 heliostats that were designed by Abengoa Solar. Each heliostat, with a surface area of 1,292 square feet (120 square meters), reflects the solar radiation it receives onto a receiver located at a height of 541 feet (165 meters) upon the tower, producing the steam enabling electricity generation inside the turbine.
Solnova 1, Solnova 2, Solnova 3, Solnova 4, and Solnova 5: thermoelectric parabolic trough solar plants
The Solnova Project encompasses five plants employing parabolic trough technology. Each plant has a power output capacity of 50 megawatts, yielding production equivalent to the electricity consumption of nearly 25,700 households. This eliminates the emission into the atmosphere of around 31,400 tons of CO2 each year.
Each one of the plants has 360 parabolic trough collectors that are 492 feet (150 meters) in length. These collectors concentrate solar radiation along an axis determined by the geometric focal line, where a heat-absorbing pipe containing a heat-bearing fluid inside is placed.
The collector has a reflective surface made up of a set of highly reflective mirrors in the shape of a parabola. The parabolic mirrors are fitted on top of a structure which enables them to follow the path of the sun.
Solnova 1,3 and 4 the three first plants to be built, have been operating since mid-2010. Solnova 2 and Solnova 5 are in the promotional stage.
The Solúcar Complex also features a variety of projects involving photovoltaic technology, based on the photoelectric effect, and employing low-concentration and one- and two-axis trackers.
• Seville PV is the world’s largest low-concentration photovoltaic technology plant. Its power output capacity totaling 1.2 megawatts is enough to supply electricity to around 650 households, preventing the emission of 1,800 tons of CO2 annually.
• Casaquemada PV is a 1.9-megawatt photovoltaic plant that employs two-axis tracking technology.
High-Temperature Experimental Tower, Eureka
Abengoa Solar inaugurated the Eureka plant at the Solúcar Complex in June 2009. Eureka is the first second-generation solar power tower and the only one of its kind operating in Andalusia and Europe. The aim of Eureka is to increase plant performance and thereby reduce generating costs and the area of the solar field.
The Eureka plant occupies a 53,820-square-foot (5,000-square-meter) solar field and comprises 35 heliostats and a 164-foot-high (50-meter-high) tower, where the experimental superheating receiver is housed. Approximate plant power output capacity totals 2 megawatts and includes a storage system that enables electrical power distribution to the grid even when there is no sunlight.
This project is aimed at reduced-scale experimental demonstration of a new type of plant employing central receiver technology to enable the implementation of higher efficiency thermodynamic cycles.
3.- Other Projects in Spain
Beyond the setting of the Solúcar Complex, Abengoa Solar also conducts its business in other places in Spain.
• In the Sevillian town of Écija, Helioenergy 1 and 2, two 50-megawatt parabolic trough concentrating solar plants are under construction. In November 2009, Abengoa Solar signed an agreement with E.ON Climate & Renewables to develop and operate the two plants.
• In Almadén, Castile-La Mancha, construction is scheduled to build a 20-megawatt power tower in collaboration with the Andalusian Agency for Innovation and Development (IDEA in its Spanish acronym) and the affiliate of the State Industrial Participation Partnership (SEPI), Business Development (Sepides).
• In Logrosán, Cáceres, a concentrating solar plant, Solabén 3, is under construction. The 50-megawatt plant employes parabolic trough technology.
- Construction is scheduled in El Carpio, Cordoba, to build Solacor 1 and 2, two 50-megawatt parabolic trough plants.
- In photovoltaic technology, we have in operation three more plants in different locations: in Linares, a 1 megawatts PV plant, in Las Cabezas, Sevilla, a 5,7 megawatts PV plant, and in Seville, “Copero”, a 1 megawatts PV plant.
5.- Projects in the United States
Abengoa Solar’s presence has grown in the United States, where the company now has offices in Colorado, Arizona and California and a team of more than 70 professionals, all of renowned wide-ranging expertise in the solar industry.
Abengoa Solar’s U.S. business encompasses design, development, construction and operation of industrial steam production plants for steam generation and climatization and large-scale electricity production plants. The company also handles design, engineering, consulting and installation services for all types of projects, including residential and commercial applications in which the sun constitutes the primary energy source.
Electrical power production plants
- In February 2008, Abengoa Solar signed an agreement with Arizona Public Service (APS), Arizona’s largest electric utility, to build and operate Solana, the world’s largest solar power plant.
This plant, which will be located about 62 miles (100 kilometers) from Phoenix, will employ parabolic trough technology and molten-salt-based thermal storage. With its 280 megawatts of power, once the plant enters into operation it will have the capability to supply electricity to approximately 70,000 households, eliminating the emission of about 400,000 tons of CO2.
• In October 2009, Abengoa Solar reached an agreement with Pacific Gas & Electric (PG&E) to sell the electricity to be produced at Mojave Solar, a new 250-megawatt plant that is going to be built in the Mojave Desert approximately 93 miles (150 kilometers) northwest of Los Angeles.
Mojave Solar will employ parabolic trough technology, and once it goes into operation will produce enough power to meet the electricity demand of 90,000 households, while preventing the emission of 431,000 tons of CO2.
Systems for producing industrial steam and heat
Abengoa Solar has executed a variety of projects for producing industrial steam in the United States, including a project for the Frito-Lay Company in California. This plant features the largest solar heat production system for industrial processes in the United States. This enables the heat-bearing fluid in the parabolic trough collectors to be heated to 482 degrees Fahrenheit (250 degrees centigrade) to produce steam that is subsequently used in the factory to heat the oil for frying potatoes.
Noteworthy among other projects is the first solar thermal installation to be integrated into a coal plant owned by Xcel Energy in Colorado. This demonstration project seeks to boost the efficiency of conventional electrical power plants while lowering CO2 emissions at the same time. This is the first time solar energy will be utilized in the United States to improve coal plant efficiency and lower emissions.
6.- International Projects
Among the range of activities Abengoa Solar conducts all over the world, worthy of special mention are the projects under way in Algeria and Morocco.
• In Hassi-R’mel, Algeria, Abengoa Solar is participating in the construction of the world’s first solar combined-cycle hybrid plant with a power output capacity totaling 150 megawatts, 20 of which will come from a thermal oil-based parabolic trough collector field.
• In Ain-Ben-Mathar, Morocco, Abengoa Solar participated in the construction of the world’s second hybrid solar plant employing a combined cycle to produce 470 megawatts of power, 20 of which will be obtained from a thermal oil-based parabolic trough collector field. This project, developed for Moroccan ONE, Office National de l’ Electricité, receives financing from the World Bank.
Shams – 1, the largest solar plant in the Middle East
This project is the product of a consortium formed by Abengoa Solar and Total that was selected through an international tender offer by Masdar, the Abu Dhabi Future Energy Company, to form a joint venture to develop and operate the largest solar plant in the Middle East.
The Shams-1 plant, which will take up an area of around 741 acres (300 hectares) in the desert of Abu Dhabi, will have a power output capacity totaling 100 megawatts thanks to the nearly 6,458,346 sq. ft. (600,000 m2) of parabolic trough collectors, producing enough electrical power to meet the needs of 62,000 households.
7.- Further Information on Solar Activity
About solar energy
Unlike fossil fuels, the sun is a clean and endless source of energy. Solar energy depends on variations and fluctuations of the sun; it is nevertheless quite predictable and utilization thereof can be programmed according to weather forecasts and the solar calendar.
Spain receives an annual average of 1,600 KWh per square meter. The exploitation of just 1 percent of the world’s solar energy potential would suffice to counterbalance the effects of climate change warned of under the Kyoto Protocol.
This energy can be harnessed directly to heat homes, greenhouses and sanitary water, or employed indirectly to deliver electricity through power plants or stations to the power grid.
There are thermal plants, based on generating steam which is later processed in a turbine; and photovoltaic plants, which produce electricity directly by means of silicon panels. In the long run, solar energy has the potential for many more applications, including hydrogen production for use in automobiles, or to generate the power needed to desalinate sea water.
Today the cost of electricity produced from the sun is significantly higher than the cost of electricity generated through the use of conventional fossil fuels such as coal or natural gas. However, this cost is expected to go down considerably in the coming years as technologies evolve and mature.
- Types of Technologies
– Photovoltaics: Based on direct electricity generation by employing sunlight. There are three major groups of technologies.
– Thin film
– Solar thermal: Based on concentrating direct solar radiation through the utilization of mirrors. This concentrated energy enables heating of a fluid reaching high temperatures which is used to generate electricity inside a turbine. There are two commercially proven solar thermal technologies, and several others are still at the research and development stage.
▪ Tower: A field of heliostats or movable mirrors is oriented according to the position of the sun, reflecting solar radiation in order to concentrate it upon a receiver located at the top of the tower. This heat is transferred to a fluid in order to generate steam which expands inside a turbine attached to a generator to produce electricity.
▪ Parabolic trough technology: The operating scheme is based on solar tracking and concentrating sunrays onto receiving pipes characterized by their high thermal efficiency and located along the cylinder focal line. Inside these pipes, a heat-transferring fluid, such as synthetic oil, is heated to approximately 752 degrees Fahrenheit (400 degrees centigrade) by the concentrated sunrays. This oil is pumped through a series of heat exchangers in order to produce superheated steam. The heat present in this steam is converted into electrical energy inside a conventional steam turbine.
8.- Research, Development and Innovation at Abengoa Solar
At year-end 2009 our team of professionals dedicated to research and development of more efficient technologies totaled 80 in our locations in Sanlúcar la Mayor (Seville), Madrid, and Denver (Colorado).
We currently have several pilot plants either in operation or under construction, among which the following are highlights:
• Parabolic trough pilot plant in operation since 2007. In 2009 various enhancements to commercial plant control and operational systems were tested.
• Parabolic trough plant employing water as the fluid instead of oil. Construction was completed and operation and assessment began in 2009.
•Second-generation superheated steam solar power tower. Construction was completed at the beginning of 2009, and the first superheated steam receiver is under evaluation.
•Molten salt-based thermal storage plant, under operation and assessment in 2009. Various technological enhancements are being tested.
In the area of photovoltaics, Abengoa Solar also has a variety of installations employing new technologies at the Solúcar Complex:
•Demonstration installations for various photovoltaic high-concentration modules.
•A photovoltaic laboratory, where Abengoa measures, specifies, and analyzes modules for all of the technologies under real operating conditions, both with and without solar tracking.
Abengoa is a technology provider that applies innovative solutions for sustainability in the infrastructure, environmental and energy sectors. The company is present in more than 70 countries, operating through its five Business Units: Solar, Bioenergy, Environmental Services, Information Technologies, and Industrial Engineering and Construction.
Through Abengoa Solar, the Solar Business Group develops and applies solar energy technologies to halt climate change and ensure sustainable development through proprietary solar thermal and photovoltaic technologies. www.abengoasolar.com
Parent company Abengoa Bioenergy is dedicated to the production and development of biofuels for the transportation sector, including bioethanol and biodiesel, among others, employing biomass (grain, cellulosic biomass, oleaginous seeds) as the raw material. These biofuels are used to produce ETBE (a gasoline additive), or in direct blending with gasoline or gas oil. As renewable sources of energy, biofuels help to lower CO2 emissions and contribute to the security and diversification of the energy supply, reducing dependence on fossil fuels used in transportation and contributing towards compliance with the Kyoto Protocol.
• Environmental Services:
Befesa, parent company of Abengoa’s environmental service business, is an international company specializing in the recycling and comprehensive management of industrial waste, as well as water generation and management. Befesa upholds a firm commitment to social responsibility in helping to create a sustainable world. www.befesa.com
• Information Technologies:
Telvent, the parent company of Abengoa’s Information Technology business, is the global IT solutions and business information services provider dedicated to helping improve efficiency, safety and security for the world’s leading companies. Telvent serves markets that are critical to the sustainability of the planet, including the energy, transportation, agricultural and environmental sectors. www.telvent.com
• Industrial Engineering and Construction:
Abeinsa is the Abengoa Industrial Technology Group offering the energy, transportation, telecommunications, industry, service, and environmental sectors integrated solutions aimed at contributing to sustainable development to create value for the company’s customers, shareholders and employees and ensuring a forward-looking international projection and return on investment. www.abeinsa.com